Description Khotyn fortress can start from the place where it is located, and this small town Khotyn with a population of 10,000 inhabitants, which is located in the south-west of Ukraine in Chernivtsi region. In this scene the State Historical-Architectural Reserve “Khotyn fortress”. This building belongs to one of the seven wonders of Ukraine.
Strengthening Khotyn began to emerge in the 10th century during the reign of Kievan Rus Vladimir Svyatoslavovich. The fortress served as the western border Rus state. The fortress itself is located on the high right bank of the Dniester River.
By fortress of forever being repeatedly destroyed and rebuilt as it played an important role in the defense of the boundaries of different states and empires. In 1250 Daniel Galician and son began to build fortresses and enclose her seven meter height wall.
In the late 12th century when due to the weakening of Galicia-Volyn principality on these lands begins with earth to form semi-autonomous status, which would be called later Shypynska land.
In the middle of the 14th century begins the decline of the Golden Horde, which has won before these territories, and in its place comes the Kingdom of Poland, the Kingdom of Hungarian and Moldavian principality, fighting for lasso fortress.
From the fortress of 1340 is part of the Hungarian kingdom, and already from 1375 to the Moldavian principality.
Moldovan governor Stefan III understood the strategic importance of the fortress and started active construction of the castle. Fortress of the time is described as the building of walls 5-6 meters in width and 40 meters in height. Since then the castle has become today’s appearance. Subsequently, only the Turks was attached to the southern wall of the entrance gates and wooden bridges.
In 1476, the fortress of becoming part of the Ottoman Empire, which at the time enslaves the Moldovan state. In 1538 Khotyn capture crowned Polish troops, who later lose. In 1563, the Cossacks Dmitry Vyshnevetsky take over the building board in his hands and held there for a long time.
In the early 17th century the Turks again occupy the Khotyn Castle. But already in 1621, is a grand battle between the Turkish-Tatar army led by Sultan Osman II on one side and the army and Karol Chodkiewicz Sagaydachnogo on the other side. This battle is described in many books and films. Self-confident army of Sultan 400 thousand bayonets opposed the 57,000 Poles and 40,000 Cossacks. The war lasted five weeks, both sides killed half the troops.
The Turks could no longer occur as desertion began and problems with food supplies in the cart. October 8, 1621 the parties entered into a settlement agreement and sent each other gifts. Peter Sahaidachny was severely wounded in battle and died April 10, 1622 in Kyiv.
Subsequently Hawtin Poland gave the Turks the peace agreement. Bohdan Khmelnytsky spring 1650 briefly freed the city. Further fortress of a place described as the battles between states. In 1673 the Poles captured the fortress again, and already in 1711 the Turks again. Between the years 1711 and 1718 strengthen and Turks are building castle built mosques and minarets. To this day the ruins of the minaret.
The last time the Turks had captured Khotyn in 1788, while the Russian-Austrian army holding the city under siege for almost 5 months. Osman Pasha was forced to surrender and left the castle with its people and with food. For a long time the Turks controlled the city built its own way, built a Turkish bath, shops.
In 1806 started another Russo-Turkish war, the Russian army once again captured Hawtin and held it to the world in 1812 in Bucharest. The contract all the territory between the Prut and Dniester became part of the Russian Empire under the name of Bessarabia.
In our day the best preserved castle. At the time of independent Ukraine is established State Historical-Architectural Reserve. Near the castle stands the church of Alexander Nevsky.
In 2002 the city was awarded the Millennium Hawtin, where stands the ancient castle on the Dniester.
Description Khotyn fortress could go on indefinitely, but better once himself to see his eyes.